Andhra Pradesh is one of the 28 states of India, situated on the country's southeastern coast. It is India's fourth-largest state by area and fifth-largest by population. Andhra Pradesh is bordered by Maharashtra in the northwest, Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the east, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west. Andhra Pradesh has the second longest coastline (of 972 km (604 mi)) among all the states of India, after Gujarat.The small enclave (30 square kilometres (12 sq mi)) of Yanam, a district of Pondicherry, lies in the Godavari delta to the northeast of the state. The state comprises three regions: Coastal Andhra, Telangana and Rayalaseema. Its capital and largest city is Hyderabad.
Bihar is a state in Northern India. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size of 38,202 sq mi (98,940 km2) and 3rd largest by population. Bihar was a centre of power, learning and culture in ancient and classical India. From Magadha arose India's first and greatest empire, the Maurya empire as well as one of the world's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule. Its capital Patna, earlier known as Pataliputra, was an important centre of Indian civilization. Close to Patna, Nalanda and Vikramshila were centres of learning which were established in the 5th and 8th century respectively in Bihar, and are counted as amongst the oldest international universities of the time.
Chhattisgarh is a state in Central India. It is the 10th largest state in India, with an area of 135,190 km2 (52,200 sq mi). With a population of 25.5 million, Chhattisgarh is the 16th most-populated state of the nation. It is a source of electricity and steel for India. Chhattisgarh accounts for 15% of the total steel produced in the country. Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest developing states in India. It is widely believed that Chhattisgarh takes its name from the 36 pillars of Chhatishgarhin Devi temple (chhattis means "36" and garh means "fort"). The old state had 36 demesnes (feudal territories): Ratanpur, Vijaypur, Kharound, Maro, Kautgarh, Nawagarh, Sondhi, Aukhar, Padarbhatta, Semriya, Champa, Lafa, Chhuri, Kenda, Matin, Aparora, Pendra, Kurkuti-kandri, Raipur, Patan, Simaga, Singarpur, Lavan, Omera, Durg, Saradha, Sirasa, Menhadi, Khallari, Sirpur, Figeswar, Rajim, Singhangarh, Suvarmar, Tenganagarh and Akaltara.
Goa is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its western coast. Goa is India's richest state with a GDP per capita two and a half times that of the country as a whole. In ancient literature, Goa was known by many names, such as Gomanta, Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Govem, and Gomantak.The Indian epic Mahabharata refers to the area now known as Goa as Goparashtra or Govarashtra, which means "a nation of cowherds". Gopakapuri or Gopakapattanam were used in some ancient Sanskrit texts, and these names were also mentioned in other sacred Hindu texts such as the Harivansa and the Skanda Purana. In the 3rd century BC, Goa was known as Aparantha and is mentioned by the Greek geographer Ptolemy. In the 13th century, the Greeks referred to Goa as Nelkinda. Other historical names for Goa are Sindapur, Sandabur, and Mahassapatam.
Gujarat is a state in the western part of India. It is known locally as Jewel of the West. It has an area of 196,204 km2 (75,755 sq mi) with a coastline of 1,600 km (990 mi), most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. Its capital city is Gandhinagar, whilst its largest city is Ahmedabad. Modern-day Gujarat is derived from Sanskrit (Gurjar-Rashtra), the Gurjar nation. Parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat have been known as Gurjaratra (country ruled or protected by the Gurjars) or Gurjarabhumi (land of the Gurjars) for centuries prior to the Mughal period. Historically, the Gurjars were Sun-worshipers and are described as devoted to the feet of the Sun-god (God Surya). Their copper-plate grants bear an emblem of the Sun and on their seals too, this symbol is depicted. Many Gurjars claim descent from Suryavanshi Kshatriyas (Sun Dynasty) and connect themselves with the Hindu deity Rama. The Gujjar clan appeared during the 7th to 8th century in Northern India about the time of the Huna invasions.
Haryana is a state in north India. It came into existence on 1 November 1966 as a newly created state carved out of the Punjab state on the basis of language. It has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189–1230). Location of the state was home to prominent sites of the Indus Valley and Vedic Civilizations. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic battle of Mahabharata at Kurukshetra mentioned in the Hindu mythology (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna), and the three battles of Panipat. The name Haryana could mean "the Abode of God", derived from the Sanskrit words Hari (the Hindu God Vishnu) and ayana (home). Scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name Haryana comes from the words Hari (Sanskrit Harit, "green") and Aranya (forest).
Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. Himachal Pradesh is famous for its abundant natural beauty.] After the war between Nepal and Britain, also known as the Anglo-Gorkha War (1814–1816), the British colonial government came into power. In 1950 Himachal was declared a union territory, but after the State of Himachal Pradesh Act 1971, Himachal emerged as the 18th state of the Republic of India. Hima means snow in Sanskrit, and the literal meaning of the state's name is In the lap of Himalayas. It was named by Acharya Diwakar Datt Sharma, one of the great Sanskrit scholars of Himachal Pradesh.
Jammu and Kashmir is a state of India.Jammu and Kashmir consists of three regions: Jammu, the Kashmir valley and Ladakh. Srinagar is the summer capital, and Jammu is the winter capital. Although the Kashmir valley is famous for its beautiful mountainous landscape, Jammu's numerous shrines attract tens of thousands of Hindu pilgrims every year. Ladakh, also known as "Little Tibet", is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and Buddhist culture.
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 30,778 sq mi (79,710 km2). The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka is sub capital, Jamshedpur is the largest and the biggest industrial city of the state, while Dhanbad the coal capital of India is the second most populous city. The name "Jharkhand" means "The Land of Forests". Jharkhand accounts for 40% of the mineral resources of India.
Karnataka is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The capital and largest city is Bangalore. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea and the Laccadive Sea to the west, Goa to the north west, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the North east, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the south east, and Kerala to the south west. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83 per cent of the total geographical area of India. It is the Seventh largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada is the most widely spoken and official language of the state.
Kerala regionally referred to as Keralam, is a state in the south-west region of India on the Malabar coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 as per the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi) it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and north east, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 census, Kerala is the twelfth largest state by population and is divided into 14 districts. Malayalam is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The state capital is Thiruvananthapuram(Trivandrum), other major cities include Kochi, Kozhikode, Kollam, Kottayam, Alappuzha, Kannur,Malappuram,and Thrissur.
Madhya Pradesh is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore. Nicknamed the "heart of India" due to its geographical location in India, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state in the country by area. With over 75 million inhabitants, it is the sixth largest state in India by population. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest.
Maharashtra is a state in the western region of India and is the nation's second-most populous. It is also the second-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 110 million inhabitants. Spread over 118,809 sq mi (307,710 km2), it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west and the Indian states of Karnataka, Telangana, Goa, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The state capital is Mumbai which is also the financial capital of the nation. Maharashtra is the wealthiest and most developed state in India, contributing 15% of the country's industrial output and 13.3% of its GDP (2006–07).
Manipur is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. The state is sometimes referred to by alternative names such as Kangleipak and Meeteileipak. It is bounded by Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south, and Assam to the west; Burma lies to its east. The state covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres (8,621 sq mi). Its people include the Meetei, Kuki, Naga, Pangal, and Bishnupriya Manipuri, who speak different types of Tibeto-Burman languages.
Meghalaya is a state in north-east India. The name means "the abode of clouds" in Sanskrit. As of 2011, the state has a population of 2,964,007 and is the 23rd most populous in the country. Meghalaya covers an area of approximately 22,430 square kilometers, with a length to breadth ratio of about 3:1. This state is bounded to the south and the west by the People's Republic of Bangladesh and the north and the east by India's Assam. The capital is Shillong, known as the "Scotland of the East". Meghalaya was previously part of Assam, but on 21 January 1972, the districts of Khasi, Garo and Jaintia hills became the new state of Meghalaya. English is the official language of Meghalaya. The other principal languages spoken include Khasi, Pnar and Garo. Unlike many Indian states, Meghalaya has historically followed a matrilineal system where the lineage and inheritance are traced through women; the youngest daughter inherits all wealth and she also takes care of her parents.
Mizoram is one of the states of Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital. The name is derived from Mi (people), Zo (hill) and Ram (land), and thus Mizoram implies "land of the hill people". In the northeast, it is the southern most landlocked state sharing borders with three of the seven sister states, namely Tripura, Assam, Manipur. The state also shares a 722 kilometer border with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Myanmar. Mizoram's population is 1,091,014, according to 2011 census. It is the 2nd least populous state in the country. Mizoram covers an area of approximately 21,087 square kilometer. About 91% of the state is forested. Like several other northeastern states of India, Mizoram was previously part of Assam. It became the 23rd state of India on 20 February 1987.
Nagaland is a state in the far north-eastern part of India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Myanmar to the east and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur. It has an area of 16,579 km2 with a population of 1,980,602 as per the 2011 census, making it one of the smallest states of India. The state is inhabited by 16 major tribes - Ao, Angami, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Sumi, Chakhesang, Khiamniungam, Kachari, Phom, Rengma, Sangtam, Yimchungrü, Kuki, Zeliang and Pochury as well as a number of sub-tribes. Each tribe is unique in character with its own distinct customs, language and dress. Two threads common to all, is language and religion - English is in predominant use and Nagaland is one of three states in India where the population is predominantly Christian, with conversions starting in the British Raj era.
Odisha, formerly known as Orissa, is an Indian state on the subcontinent's east coast, by the Bay of Bengal. It is surrounded by the Indian states of West Bengal to the north-east and in the east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west and Andhra Pradesh to the south. It is the modern name of the ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India and consisted predominantly of Oriya speakers. 1 April is therefore celebrated as Utkala Dibasa (foundation day of Odisha). The region is also known as Utkala when mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack remained the capital of the state for over eight centuries until 13 April 1948 when Bhubaneswar was officially declared as the new state capital, a position it still holds.
Punjab also spelt Panjab, is a state in the northwest of the Republic of India, forming part of the larger Punjab region.The state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. To the north it is bounded by the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The state capital is located in Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana.
Rajasthan literally, "Land of Kings" or "Land of Kingdoms"), is India's largest state by area (342,239 square kilometres (132,139 sq mi) or 10.4% of India's total area). It is located on the western side of the country, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert (also known as the "Rajasthan Desert" and "Great Indian Desert") and shares a border with Pakistan along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by other Indian states: Gujarat to the southwest; Madhya Pradesh to the southeast; Uttar Pradesh and Haryana to the northeast; and Punjab to the north. Its features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilization at Kalibanga; the Dilwara Temples, a Jain pilgrimage site at Rajasthan's only hill station, Mount Abu, in the ancient Aravalli mountain range; and, in eastern Rajasthan, the Keoladeo National Park near Bharatpur, a World Heritage Site known for its bird life. Rajasthan is also home to two national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur and Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar.
Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state located in the Himalayan mountains. The state is bordered by Nepal to the west, China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north and east, and Bhutan to the east. The Indian state of West Bengal lies to the south. With 610,577 inhabitants as of the 2011 census, Sikkim is the least populous state in India and the second-smallest state after Goa in total area, covering approximately 7,096 km2 (2,740 sq mi). Sikkim is nonetheless geographically diverse due to its location in the Himalayas; the climate ranges from subtropical to high alpine, and Kangchenjunga, the world's third-highest peak, is located on Sikkim's border with Nepal. Sikkim is a popular tourist destination, owing to its culture, scenery and biodiversity. It also has the only open land border between India and China. Sikkim's capital and largest city is Gangtok.
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital is Chennai (formerly known as Madras), the largest city. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, classical arts, classical music, classical literature, Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Telangana is a state in the Southern region of India. It has an area of 114,840 km2. Most of it was part of the princely state of Hyderabad (Medak and Warangal Divisions), which was ruled by the Nizams during the British Raj until 1947, and later until 1948, when it joined the Union of India. In 1956, Hyderabad state was dissolved and Andhra State was merged with the Telangana region of the state of Hyderabad to form the state of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, Telangana became the 29th state of India, consisting of the ten north-western districts of Andhra Pradesh with Hyderabad as its capital. The city of Hyderabad will continue to serve as the joint capital for Andhra Pradesh and the successor state of Telengana for a period of ten years. The name Telangana is thought to have been derived from the word Trilinga, as in Trilinga Desa, which translates to "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu legend, Shiva descended in lingam form on three mountains, Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharama, which marked the boundaries of the Trilingadesa, later called Telinga, Telunga or Telugu.
Tripura is a state in Northeast India. The third-smallest state in the country, it covers 10,491 km2 (4,051 sq mi) and is bordered by Bangladesh to the north, south, and west, and the Indian states of Assam and Mizoram to the east. In 2011 the state had 3,671,032 residents, constituting 0.3% of the country's population. Indigenous communities, known in India as scheduled tribes, form about 30 per cent of Tripura's population. The Kokborok-speaking Tripuri people are the major group among 19 tribes and many subtribes; Bengali people form the ethno-linguistic majority in Tripura. Together with the neighbouring nation of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, it makes up the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal. The area of modern Tripura was ruled for several centuries by the Tripuri dynasty. It was a princely state during British rule, and joined the newly independent India in 1949. Ethnic strife between the indigenous people and Bengali population led to tension and scattered violence since its integration into the country, but the establishment of an autonomous tribal administrative agency and other strategies have led to peace.
Uttar Pradesh is a state located in northern India. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. Lucknow is the administrative capital of Uttar Pradesh. Ghaziabad, Kanpur, Moradabad, Aligarh, Agra, Bareily, Varanasi are famous for it's industrial importance in the state as well as in India. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttarakhand, was carved from the mountainous Himalayan region of Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of ancient and medieval India, including Magadha, Nanda, Mauryan, Sunga, Kushan, Gupta, Gurjara, Rashtrakuta, Pala and Mughal which many say was improved by the Nawabs of Awadh. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and then flow as the Ganga further east. The state has several historical, natural, and religious tourist destinations, such as the Taj Mahal, Varanasi, Piprahwa, Kaushambi, Kanpur, Ballia, Shravasti, Kushinagar, Lucknow, Chitrakoot, Jhansi, Allahabad, Budaun, Meerut and Mathura.
Uttarakhand formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Land of the gods" due to the many Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the state. Uttarakhand is known for its natural beauty of the Himalayas, the Bhabhar and the Terai. On 9 November 2000, this 27th state of the Republic of India was created from the Himalayan and adjoining northwestern districts of Uttar Pradesh. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region, China on the north; the Mahakali Zone of the Far-Western Region, Nepal on the east; and the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh to the south and Himachal Pradesh to the northwest. The state is divided into two divisions, Garhwal and Kumaon, with a total of 13 districts. The provisional capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun, the largest city in the region, which is a railhead. The high court of the state is in Nainital.
West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous, with over 91 million inhabitants. Spread over 34,267 sq mi (88,750 km2), it is bordered by the countries of Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, and the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata. Together with the neighboring nation of Bangladesh and parts of the state of Tripura, it makes up the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal. A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's net domestic product. Noted for its political activism, the state was ruled by democratically elected communist government for 34 years, starting from 1977. It is noted for its cultural activities and presence of cultural and educational institutions; the state capital Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, ranges from stalwarts in literature including Nobel-laureate Rabindranath Tagore to scores of musicians, film-makers and artists. West Bengal is also distinct from most other Indian states in its appreciation and practice of playing football besides the national favourite sport cricket.